Jan 05

Crime Scene Investigation – How it Works

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Scene of the crime investigation is the assembly point of logic, law and science. Processing scene of the crime is a tiresome and long procedure which entails documentation purposely of the situations in the scene and gathering of physical evidences that will probably shed light on what occurred and will point who did the crime. The crime laboratory will does something about the evidences to restructure the crime or recognize the perpetrator or criminal and the lawful matters involved in ensuring that the evidences are permissible in the court.

At any scene of the crime, a crime investigator may gather a piece of dried blood in a windowpane, by not allowing his arm touch the glass if ever there are some unseen fingerprints there, pick up hair from the jacket of the victim with the use of tweezers but not disturbing the clothes enough in shaking off some white powder (which might be cocaine or not) in the crumple of the sleeves and make use of sled hammer in breaking through the wall which looks as if it is the source of an awful smell.

The physical proof itself is just a component of the investigation. The final objective is the strong belief of the person responsible for the crime committed. Therefore, while the crime investigator scratches off dried piece of blood without staining some prints, picks up many hairs by not disturbing some traces of proof and smashing through a partition in the room, he thinks about all needed procedure to preserve all evidences in their present forms.

The scene of the crime investigation starts when the crime investigation unit accepts a call coming from police authorities or detectives on the crime scene. On reaching the crime scene, the investigator makes sure that the place is secure. Then he/she does a primary walk-through in order to get the entire feel of the scene of the crime, see for himself/herself if anybody has moved or touched anything his/her arrival and then he/she makes initial theory out of the visual assessment. Then he/she notes down some potential evidences. At this instance, he/she do not touch anything.

 

Jan 05

Street Crime Vs Corporate Crime

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When the community is moving towards progress, it is expected that the crimes will also increase and it can be therefore be concluded that progress means crime. Wherever a community exists, people should expect that crime is present because crime is inevitable as part of the sociological aspect of the community derived from the conflict between individuals. A human being must have to think in advance its defense against the criminals and always anticipate the occurrence of crime because crime will definitely come and find its own way to urface. These two categories of crimes we have discussed have both the potential of damaging the country in the great extent possible.

This dilemma has been present since the beginning of the history of human race because crime has been pre-planted into the human brain. If an individual cannot control the animal thing inside its fragile mind then there is a high probability that crime will occur. When crime occurs it will definitely leaves a damage of certain amount to lives or properties. Whether someone hates crime or not, a person must have to be accustomed to it and ensure yourself all the time to have enough shields and counter defenses when it strikes in surprise.

What is street crime? It is an offense that transpired in our streets or highways committed by a person inclined to violate the law and the few example of that is a simple pick pocketing, and to a much higher one, the highway robbery. Street crime is usually committed by a single individual or by a group. The amount of damage involve in this crime is usually of little value, however, there are lot of instances that the amount damage is also huge especially in the case of bank robbery which is also considered as street crime.

What is corporate crime? It is an offense in violation of the law usually perpetrated by corporation or its officers and employees. This crime is more complicated and the weight of this crime is really huge and the damage is certainly vast. Corporate crime is very well structured. Sometime a corporation or a juridical entity is usually used by those big time syndicates as front or shield in order to hide the true nature of their illegal transactions. Corporate crime is much dangerous since it has so many linkages. Gathering evidence that will prove corporate crime is really hard and it is very challenging because a case investigator must have to tie up or link its evidence gathered from one point to another.

Jan 05

Does Crime Pay?

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Crime is defined as a breach of a rule or law for which a punishment may ultimately be prescribed by some governing authority or force” (Crime). What if crime did not exist? Who would fund public works? How many professions would not exist? Would the county require more funding from federal and state grants? Among other things, isn’t it true that the derivative of crime is financial punishment? Is crime financially detrimental or beneficial to society? In this case study the authors will attempt to answer these questions. Using a sample, the authors will prove that the funds derived from crime offset the cost of crime. Furthermore, this report will provide the findings of a detailed analysis of the cost- benefit relationship.

The first step in the process was to select a sample to analyze. The sample size became important because it needed to be an accurate representation of the population. The authors chose Chester County, Pa because of its relevancy to West Chester University. Next, the authors gathered and compiled multiple financial statements. These included the Statements of Disbursements and Receipts from each district court along with the Chester County Budget. For the purpose of finding revenues and costs directly or indirectly related to crime, the data was extracted from these documents (Refer to Exhibit 1).

The formulated crime income statement, constructed by the authors, proved their financial assumptions to be truthful and accurate. The finalized “income statement” stated that revenues and costs were nearly equal. Therefore, the cost of crime directly offsets the revenues derived from crime. Furthermore, Chester County encountered a realized gain of approximately two million dollars. Based on this analysis, it is fair to state that crime is slightly financially beneficial to Chester County. This idea concludes that no extra state or government funding would be necessary if crime did not exist. One must be advised that during the analytical process the authors were forced to make reasonable and fair estimations because of the lack of specific information and resources.

The average salaries of uniformed police officers range from forty to sixty thousand dollars annually, not including bonuses and overtime (Police Patrol Officer). Lawyers who practice law for more than four years on average make ninety thousand dollars, forcing them into a higher tax bracket (Salary Survey). Without crime high paying jobs would move toward extinction. Therefore, the county would receive less tax payments. Most lawyers are not collecting salaries from the local government, yet they make a decent living. With no more crime, lawyers, judges and law enforcement officers may still exist for civil matters, but not at their current capacity.

Jan 05

An Introduction To Cyber-Crime

Criminal Minds header 1Computer crime refers to criminal activity involving a computer. The computer may be used in the commission of a crime or it may be the target. Net-crime refers to criminal use of the Internet. Cyber-crimes are essentially a combination of these two elements and can be best defined as “Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly using modern telecommunication networks.

In its most simple form, cyber-crime can be defined as any illegal activity thatuses a computer as its primary means of function. The U.S. Department of Justice broadens this definition to include any illegal activity that uses a computer for the storage of evidence. The term ‘cyber-crime’ can refer to offenses including criminal activity against data, infringement of content and copyright, fraud, unauthorized access, child pornography and cyber-stalking.

 

The United Nations Manual on the Prevention and Control of Computer Related Crime includes fraud, forgery and unauthorized access in its definition of cyber-crime. Cyber-crime in effect covers a wide range of attacks on individuals and organisations alike. These crimes may include anything from an individual’s emotional or financial state to a nation’s security. There are two main categories that define the make up of cyber-crimes. Firstly those that target computer networks or devices such as viruses, malware, or denial of service attacks.

In order to highlight the scale of cyber-crime globally, the Norton Cyber-crime Report 2011 revealed 431 million adults in 24 countries had been victims’ of cyber-crime in that year. Computer based crime is escalating at an alarming rate. In the report Norton calculated the financial cost of global cyber-crime at $388 billion. This is more than the combined international market for marijuana, heroin and cocaine, estimated at $288 billion. Assuming its current growth rate continues, cyber-crime will soon surpass the entire global drug trafficking market that is estimated to be worth $411 billion annually.

Cyber-crimes have expanded to include activities that cross international borders and can now be considered a global epidemic. The international legal system ensures cyber criminals are held accountable through the International Criminal Court. Law enforcement agencies are faced with unique challenges and the anonymity of the Internet only complicates the issues. There are problems with gathering evidence, cross-jurisdictional issues and miscommunication related to reporting.

 

Jan 03

Defending People Charged With Internet Crimes

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According to reports published by the United States Federal Government, in the mid-1980s, trafficking of child-pornography within the United States was nearly eradicated through successful campaigns by federal and state authorities. In the 1980’s, producing child pornography was difficult and expensive, however, with the advent of computers and the internet, child pornography has become easier to acquire, reproduce and store. Legally speaking, 20% of the pornography located on the internet is illegal to possess in the United States.

Digital cameras and the ease in which images and movies can be posted on the internet, combined with a world wide web which has no borders, has made it easy for distributors and collectors of child pornography to obtain the illegal photographs and videos. Although most people have some knowledge about the vast amount of pornography located on the internet, The National Center for Missing & Exploited Children has estimated that 20% of all internet pornography involves children.

As a result of the increase in the availability of child-pornography, federal and state convictions for crimes related to child-pornography has increased. Recently, the United States Department of Justice announced a national strategy for eliminating child pornography. The effort includes nationalized databases allowing states to share information and the hiring of 38 assistant U.S. Attorneys across the United States to prosecute child pornography crimes. A person must merely open a newspaper or watch the television to find a news article or picture of a person whose name and reputation is ruined by state or federal charges related to possession of child pornography.

Instead of focusing on the people producing child pornography, efforts have shifted and law enforcement is now targeting people who possess child pornography. In order to help prosecute regular citizens, the federal government has partnered with internet search engines to find people searching for, downloading and possessing child pornography. Computer crimes are not limited to simply possession or distribution of child pornography. Many people have seen television shows where law enforcement uses a computer to lure unsuspecting people into illegal situations (e.g., NBC’s documentary, To Catch a Predator, etc.).

In such situations, a law enforcement officer poses as a minor and lures a unsuspecting person to a location; the location is usually portrayed as the minor’s home. When the unlucky person arrives at the minor’s home, television cameras record the subsequent conversation between the surprised adult and law nforcement.  Sometimes, the unlucky person believes (or hopes) he or she may be able to “talk their way out” of a potential arrest; however, the statements made by the person is recorded and likely used by a prosecutor as the basis for a criminal prosecution.